Language & words 5

From the quiz on 13/9/16.

  1. A Lusophone is a speaker of which major European language? Portuguese

  2. Which common English adjective, whose sole surviving meaning is “full-figured”, originally meant “obedient” or “compliant” and is cognate with the verb “bow”? Buxom

  3. What name, from the French for “copy” or “tracing”, is given to an expression borrowed into one language from another by literal translation of individual components (e.g. ‘brainwash’ from Chinese)? Calque

  4. What is the literal meaning of ‘esperanto’ in the language Esperanto? One who hopes (hoper)

  5. In linguistics, which law, named after a German philologist, describes how plosive consonants developed from Proto-Indo-European in Germanic languages as opposed to languages such as Latin and Greek? Grimm’s law (after Jacob Grimm)

  6. Árvíztűrő tükörfúrógép, whose approximate English translation is “flood-resistant mirror-drilling machine”, is a well-known phrase that contains every accented letter in which language precisely once? Hungarian

  7. What is the native Korean name of the Korean alphabet, which was created in 1443 by King Sejong the Great? Hangeul (in South Korea) or Chosŏn’gŭl (in North Korea)

  8. The word ‘omnibus’, of which the common English word ‘bus’ is a shortening, is a Latin noun in which grammatical case? Dative (plural)

  9. Brythonic and Goidelic are the two main branches of which Indo-European language family, whose name attests to their origin in the British Isles as opposed to the continent? Insular Celtic

  10. What name, meaning “cutting” in Greek, is given to the interpolation of one word between the constituents of another, which is particularly common in colloquial English with such expressions as “any-bloody-where” or the nonstandard “a whole nother”? Tmesis

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